1031 (26th March)
King Malcolm III was born to Duncan
, grandson of King Malcolm II and his wife, Suthen, niece or sister of Siward, Earl of Northumbria in Scotland. He was given the nickname Canmore (meaning great leader) late in his reign.
Malcolm’s brother, Donaldbane was born to Duncan and Suthen.
1034 (25th November)
Malcolm’s father Duncan became King of Scotland after King Malcolm II died.
1040 (15th August)
King Duncan, Malcolm’s father, was killed in a battle with Macbeth. Malcolm and his brother were considered too young to rule and Macbeth
became King. Malcolm and his brother were taken either to England or to the Orkneys for their own safety.
Malcolm’s grandfather, Crinan, abbot of Dunkeld, led an army in Malcolm’s favour against Macbeth, but he was killed during the battle.
An English army led by Siward, Earl of Northumbria, invaded Scotland. Some sources indicate that this invasion may have been to overthrow Macbeth and place Malcolm on the throne of Scotland. Others point to the invasion being in favour of the son of the King of Strathclyde who was also called Malcolm.
1057 (15th August)
Battle of Lumphanan
Macbeth was killed in this battle between the forces of Malcolm and those of Macbeth. Some sources state that Macbeth was killed by Malcolm.
1057 (around 20th August)
Macbeth’s stepson, Lulach, became King of Scotland.
1058 (23rd April)
King Lulach was killed by Malcolm.
1058 (25th April)
Malcolm was crowned King of Scotland.
1059 (25th April)
Malcolm paid a visit to the English court and met King Edward the Confessor
. It is believed that he suggested a marriage between himself and Margaret, daughter of Edward the Exile
who had recently returned to England from exile in Hungary. The marriage did not take place for some unknown reason.
Malcolm Canmore married Ingibiorg, widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Earl of Orkney. Ingibiorg was also the niece of King Olaf of Norway and Harald Hardrada
A son, Duncan was born to Malcolm III and Ingibiorg.
A son, Donald was born to Malcolm III and Ingibiorg.
A son, Malcolm was born to Malcolm III and Ingibiorg.
1066 (5th January)
Malcolm Canmore gave refuge to Tostig Godwinson
, exiled brother of Harold Godwinson, whose invasion of the north had been repulsed by Earls Edwin
1066 (20th September)
Battle of Stamford Bridge
In England Harald Hardrada had invaded northern England. After taking York he had been defeated and killed at this battle.
1066 (14th October)
Battle of Hastings
In England, William Duke of Normandy had invaded England. King Harold Godwinson was killed in the battle and the Normans began to conquer England.
1066 (15th October)
Edgar Aetheling was named King of England by the Witan.
Having conquered the south-east of England, William was poised to attack London. The nobility of England knew that they could not defeat the Normans and so Edgar, the Witan and other nobility were forced to submit. William took Edgar into his custody.
1066 (25th December)
William Duke of Normandy was crowned King William I of England.
1068 (Late Spring)
King Malcolm Canmore agreed to give refuge to the widow of Edward the Exile and her children Edgar Aetheling, Margaret and Cristina.
Malcolm’s wife, Ingibiorg, died.
Edgar Aetheling and his family left Scotland and went to northern England to join a growing resistance to the rule of King William I. Soon afterwards Malcolm marched the Scottish army into northern England. He made a number of raids before returning to Scotland.
Edgar Aetheling and his family returned to Scotland.
Malcolm Canmore married the sister of Edgar Aetheling, Margaret of Wessex.
A son, Edward, was born to Malcolm Canmore and Margaret of Wessex.
A son, Edmund, was born to Malcolm Canmore and Margaret of Wessex.
King William I had finally conquered all of England. He turned his sights north and invaded Scotland. Malcolm knew he was no match for the Norman King and made peace. Malcolm gave his eldest son, Duncan, to William as a hostage to secure peace. In return Malcolm was given land in Cumbria.
A son, Ethelred, was born to Malcolm Canmore and Margaret of Wessex.
A son, Edgar, was born to Malcolm Canmore and Margaret of Wessex.
Malcolm of Scotland persuaded Edgar Aetheling to make peace with William and give up his claim to the English throne.
A son, Alexander, was born to Malcolm Canmore and Margaret of Wessex at Dumfermline.
A daughter, Edith, was born to Malcolm Canmore and Margaret of Wessex.
A daughter, Mary, was born to Malcolm Canmore and Margaret of Wessex.
A son, David, was born to Malcolm Canmore and Margaret of Wessex.
Malcolm’s son, Malcolm died.
1087 (26th September)
King William I of England died. He was succeeded by his son, William Rufus who became King William II
. However, William’s brother, Robert Curthose
felt he should be ruler of England and Normandy. Edgar Aetheling decided to join forces with Curthose.
William II defeated Robert Curthose and a truce was reached between the brothers. William II confiscated Edgar Aetheling’s land and possessions as a punishment for his treachery. Edgar returned to Scotland.
Malcolm Canmore marched into England and lay siege to Newcastle. The English army marched north to meet them and Malcolm decided to retreat back to Scotland.
Malcolm Canmore agreed a peace with William II.
The peace with England was not holding. Malcolm agreed to meet William II in Gloucester.
1093 (24th August)
Malcolm arrived in Gloucester to meet William Rufus but when he arrived he discovered that the English King was no longer prepared to negotiate. Malcolm returned to Scotland.
Malcolm marched south into England where he embarked on a series of raids.
1093 (13th November)
Battle of Alnwick
The Scottish army was ambushed by a force led by Earl of Northumbria, Robert de Mowbray. Malcolm Canmore, King of Scotland was killed during the battle and his son, Edward was mortally wounded.