Matilda of Boulogne was born to Eustace III, Count of Boulogne and Mary of Scotland, daughter of Malcolm Canmore
. Little is known of her life before she married Stephen of Blois.
Eustace III of Boulogne, died. Matilda and Stephen inherited Boulogne.
King Henry I
summoned Stephen to England. There he was made to swear an oath to support Henry’s daughter, Empress Maud
‘s, claim to the English throne.
A son, Baldwin, was born to Matilda and Stephen.
A son, Eustace, was born to Matilda and Stephen.
A daughter, Matilda, was born to Matilda and Stephen.
Matilda and Stephen’s son, Baldwin, died.
1135 (22nd November)
King Henry I
died. When Stephen, heard of the death of his uncle, he rode to Winchester, where, with the support of his brother, Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester, he took control of the treasury.
1135 (22nd December)
With the support of most of the barons, Stephen took the throne of England. Most people felt that women were unfit to rule and preferred Stephen over Henry I’s daughter, Matilda.
A daughter, Marie, was born to Matilda and Stephen.
Battle of Llwchwr (Gower)
This battle, fought between Welsh and Norman forces was won by the Welsh.
1136 (1st January)
David I of Scotland supported Henry I’s daughter Matilda’s claim to the English throne and invaded the north of England. Stephen marched north to intercept the Scottish king.
Fulk of Anjou invaded Normandy in support of his daughter-in-law Matilda.
1136 (22nd March)
Matilda of Boulogne, was crowned Queen Consort at Westminster Abbey.
1136 (21st July)
Empress Matilda’s half-brother, Robert of Gloucester, rebelled against Stephen beginning a period of civil war known as the Anarchy.
A son, William, was born to Matilda and Stephen.
Matilda founded Cressing Temple in Essex.
Stephen needed the support of France against Anjou. It was agreed that Stephen and Matilda’s son would be recognised as the Duke of Normandy by France provided that Eustace paid homage to Louis VI.
1138 (22nd August)
Battle of the Standard
King David I of Scotland had invaded England again and was defeated by King Stephen at this battle.
Matilda called on troops from Boulogne and Flanders to help defeat Empress Maud’s army.
Matilda founded Temple Cowley in Oxford.
1139 (9th April)
King David I of Scotland and King Stephen reached an agreement and hostilities were ended between the two after Stephen agreed to cede Northumbria and Cumbria to the Scot.
Empress Maud landed at Arundel in Sussex to press her claim to the throne.
1139 (after September)
Supported by Robert of Gloucester, Empress Maud quickly gained control of the south-west of England.
Matilda and Stephen’s daughter, Matilda, died.
Matilda met with King Louis VI of France and they agreed that Matilda and Stephen’s son and heir, Eustace, should marry Louis’s daughter, Constance. This gained French support for Stephen.
1141 (2nd February)
King Stephen, was captured and imprisoned by Empress Maud who declared herself Queen of England.
Matilda of Boulogne began raising an army to free her husband.
1141 (14th September)
The Rout of Winchester
Matilda of Boulogne’s forces captured Empress Maud’s half-brother, Robert of Gloucester.
Matilda agreed to release Robert of Gloucester in exchange for the release of her husband, Stephen.
, eldest son of Empress Maud, arrived in England to help his mother’s cause.
Wilton Castle, where Stephen was staying, was placed under siege. However, Stephen was able to break free and the siege failed.
Henry Plantagenet returned to Anjou to begin learning how to administer the family’s lands there.
Robert of Gloucester, Empress Maud’s chief supporter died.
Empress Maud returned to Normandy. The death of Robert of Gloucester meant she was unable to continue fighting against Stephen.
1152 (3rd May)
Matilda died of a fever at Hedingham Castle.
First published 2018; Updated and re-published Mar 22 @ 10:28 – Updated –
Harvard Reference for this page:
Heather Y Wheeler. (2018 – 2021). Matilda of Boulogne 1105 – 1152.