1453 (13th October)
Edward of Lancaster, also known as Edward of Westminster, was born to King Henry VI
and Margaret of Anjou
at the Palace of Westminster. At the time of his birth his father was suffering a bout of insanity and was unaware of his birth and was incapable of ruling. There was a power struggle between Richard Duke of York
and Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, favourite of Margaret of Anjou over who should be regent. There were widespread rumours that Beaufort was Edward’s father.
1454 (15th March)
Edward, was created Earl of Chester and was invested as Prince of Wales at Windsor Castle.
King Henry VI recovered and regained control of the country. He publicly acknowledged that he was the father of Prince Edward.
1455 (22nd May)
Wars of the Roses
First Battle of St Albans
The forces of Richard Duke of York, supported by Richard Neville Duke of Salisbury and his son, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick
, defeated the Lancastrians led by the Duke of Somerset and the Duke of Northumberland.
King Henry VI suffered another bout of insanity.
1460 (after 10th July)
Richard of York claimed the throne but the nobility refused to accept him as anything other than heir to the throne.
Act of Accord
Richard Duke of York was named heir to the throne over Edward of Lancaster.
1460 (30th December)
Battle of Wakefield
Edward’s mother, unwilling to accept Edward’s disinheritance, raised an army in the north. Richard of York was forced to march north where he was defeated and killed by the Lancastrian force.
1460 (31st December)
Henry VI was released from captivity but was still mentally unstable and as a consequence was unfit to rule.
Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, known as the Kingmaker due to his meddling in matters of the succession, put forward Richard of York’s son, Edward, Earl of March
as claimant to the throne.
1461 (2nd February)
Battle of Mortimer’s Cross
The Earls of Pembroke and Wiltshire led an army of Welsh Lancastrians and French mercenaries to join Margaret of Anjou’s advance on London but they were intercepted by a Yorkist army led by Edward Earl of March and defeated.
1461 (17th February)
Second Battle of St Albans
Warwick attempted to block Margaret of Anjou’s southward advance on London but his defensive position was surprised. After a long and bloody battle the Yorkists fled. Henry VI was recaptured but the Lancastrians failed to secure London and returned north.
1461 (17th February)
Following the Lancastrian victory at St Albans, Prince Edward was knighted by his father on the battlefield.
1461 (4th March)
Henry VI was deposed by Edward Duke of York who took the throne as King Edward IV
1461 (29th March)
Battle of Towton
Edward pursued the Lancastrians north and attacked them near Tadcaster. After a long fight in heavy snowfall, the Lancastrians were defeated having suffered heavy casualties.
Following the Lancastrian defeat at the Battle of Towton, Prince Edward and his mother fled to Scotland where they were given refuge before sailing for Brittany. Edward’s father was imprisoned in the Tower of London.
1461 (28th June)
Edward IV was crowned King at Westminster Abbey.
1462 (28th June)
Margaret of Anjou, Edward’s mother, agreed a treaty with Louis XI of France whereby she agreed to cede Calais to France if Louis helped her to restore Henry VI to the English throne.
1462 (25th October)
Margaret invaded the north of England, near Bamburgh Castle, with a small army. Alnwick, Bamburgh and Dunstanburgh all surrendered to her.
1462 (13th November)
Margaret and Prince Edward were forced to flee north to Scotland when Edward IV sent a large army north to intercept Margaret’s force.
Edward and his mother fled to France.
Edward IV agreed a treaty with France whereby both countries agreed not to give any assistance to the other’s enemies. This was a blow to Margaret who had hoped to gain French support for her cause.
Edward agreed a truce with Scotland at York.
The Earl of Warwick and George Duke of Clarence
, with Lancastrian support, rebelled against King Edward IV but were defeated.
1470 (22nd July)
Louis XI persuaded Warwick and Margaret of Anjou to set aside their differences and remove Edward IV from the throne of England.
1470 (25th July)
As part of the agreement between Warwick and Margaret, Edward was betrothed to Warwick’s daughter, Anne Neville
at the Cathedral of Angers.
Warwick and the Duke of Clarence at the head of an army returned to England and defeated King Edward IV who was forced to flee to Burgundy. King Edward’s wife, Elizabeth Woodville
, and her children sought sanctuary in Westminster Abbey.
1470 (3rd October)
King Henry VI was restored to the English throne.
1470 (13th December)
Edward of Lancaster married Anne Neville
at the Chateau d’Amboise.
Edward IV returned to England at the head of a Burgundian Yorkist army.
1471 (14th April)
Battle of Barnet
Edward set out to attack Warwick’s larger Lancastrian force at dawn. After a three hour fight, two Lancastrian divisions mistakenly attacked each other and the army broke and fled. Warwick was killed in the flight.
1471 (14th April)
Edward and his mother landed at Weymouth with the intention of supporting Warwick, but they had arrived too late.
1471 (4th May)
Battle of Tewekesbury
The Lancastrian forces were leaving for Wales when they were attacked by Edward IV and his brother, Richard Duke of Gloucester
. The Lancastrians were defeated. Edward of Lancaster, Prince of Wales, was killed during the battle.