1411 (22nd September)
Richard Duke of York was born the son of Richard of Conisburgh and Anne Mortimer. His father was the grandson of King Edward III
. Richard was the couple’s second child, his sister Isabel had been born in 1409. Richard’s mother died shortly after his birth.
1415 (31st July)
This plot to depose King Henry V
and replace him with Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, was uncovered. Richard’s father had been one of the conspirators.
1415 (5th August)
Richard’s father was executed for his part in the Southampton Plot. This meant Richard became a ward of the King.
1415 (25th October)
Richard became 3rd Duke of York after his uncle, Edward, 2nd Duke of York, was killed at the Battle of Agincourt.
Sir Robert Waterton was appointed guardian for Richard.
Richard was made a ward of Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmorland. Neville betrothed Richard to his daughter, Cecily.
1425 (18th January)
Edmund Mortimer, Richard’s uncle, died and Richard inherited the title Earl of March and Earl of Ulster as well as the Mortimer estates.
1425 (21st October)
Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmorland, died. Richard became the ward of Neville’s widow, Joan Beaufort.
1426 (19th May)
Richard was knighted at Leicester by the King’s younger brother, John, Duke of Bedford.
Richard Duke of York married Cecily Neville.
1429 (6th November)
The Duke of York attended the coronation of King Henry VI
at Westminster Abbey.
1430 (20th January)
York acted as Constable of England for a brief time.
1431 (16th December)
Richard was in Paris for the coronation of Henry VI as King of France.
1432 (12th May)
York came of age and took control of his vast estates.
1433 (22nd April)
Richard Duke of York was made a Knight of the Garter.
Richard attended a meeting of Henry VI’s uncles, John Duke of Bedford and Humphrey Duke of Gloucester which sought to find agreement regarding the ongoing Hundred Years’ War with France.
1435 (14th September)
John Duke of Bedford, uncle of King Henry VI and regent in France, died.
1435 (21st September)
Treaty of Arras
This treaty, signed by France and Burgundy, recognised Charles VII as King of France and left England isolated.
Richard was appointed commander of the English army in France.
York managed to recover lost areas in Normandy.
Richard Duke of York’s tenure in France ended and he returned to England.
1439 (10th August)
A daughter, Anne, was born to Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville at Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire.
1440 (2nd July)
York was appointed Lieutenant of France. He was given an annual income and also power to properly control the army.
1441 (10th February)
A son, Henry, was born to Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville at Hatfield. He died at a young age.
Having successfully kept the French at bay, the English army were defeated by the French at Pontoise.
1442 (28th April)
A son, Edward
, was born to Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville in Rouen, Normandy.
Henry VI gave John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, control of an army of 8000 men in France. Richard was aggrieved because this move by the King weakened his position. He felt the men would have been better joining his army.
1443 (23rd April)
Richard agreed a truce with Burgundy at Dijon.
1443 (17th May)
A son, Edmund, was born to Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville in Rouen, Normandy.
1444 (22nd April)
A daughter, Elizabeth, was born to Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville in Rouen, Normandy.
1445 (28th April)
1445 (20th October)
The Duke of York returned to England from France. As a member of the senior nobility he hoped to be given a position on the King’s Council but it was not immediately forthcoming.
1446 (3rd May)
A daughter, Margaret, was born to Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville at Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire.
1447 (7th July)
A son William, was born to Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville at Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire. He died at a young age.
1447 (30th July)
Richard Duke of York was appointed Lieutenant of Ireland for ten years. As Earl of Ulster and a landowner in Ireland he was a natural choice for the position. At the same time Henry VI removed him from playing a part in English politics.
1448 (10th August)
A son John, was born to Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville in Ireland. He died young.
Richard finally left England for Ireland. He was accompanied by his wife and family as well as a force of around 600.
1449 (21st October)
A son, George
, was born to Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville at Dublin Castle, Ireland.
There was a revolt against the crown by the people of Kent and Sussex led by Jack Cade using the name Mortimer. They soon took London and killed the Lord High Treasurer.
Normandy fell to the French. Those Englishmen that had been in Normandy returned to England full of grievance against the Crown.
1450 (7th September)
York found it impossible to continue his tenure in Ireland. He had not received sufficient funding from the crown and he was owed a considerable sum of money having funded the defence of English possessions himself. He and his family returned to England landing at Angelsey. Richard soon became a figurehead for mounting dissatisfaction with the rule of King Henry VI.
1450 (27th September)
Richard Duke of York arrived back in London. Along the way he had been joined by people that shared his discontent with the King. York demanded better government of the country. He also hoped to effect the removal of the Duke of Somerset, favourite of the King and Margaret Beaufort. Somerset took up residence in the Tower of London for his own safety.
1450 (late September)
Amid growing pressure, King Henry VI appointed York as Justice of the Forest south of the river Trent. However, this position did not give him any real power.
A son, Thomas, was born to Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville. He died at a young age.
The Duke of Somerset was appointed Captain of Calais.
A proposal that Richard Duke of York be recognised as heir to the throne was not well received by the King.
Richard tried to persuade King Henry VI to recognise him as heir to the throne.
1452 (2nd October)
A son, Richard
, was born to Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville at Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire.
Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick
fell out with Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, after the King granted Somerset control of Glamorgan which had been held by Warwick as part of his Despenser heritage.
As a result of his continued opposition to the King, Richard was stripped of his appointments as Lieutenant of Ireland and Justice of the Forest.
King Henry VI
suffered a mental breakdown and was considered unfit to rule. The Duke of Somerset took control of government.
Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick was annoyed that his enemy, Somerset, had control of the country. He turned his favour to Richard Duke of York. As a result Richard was included as a member of the Great Council that governed the country while the King was incapacitated.
1453 (13th October)
A son, Edward, was born to King Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou at the Palace of Westminster. As heir to the throne he was created Duke of Cornwall.
1454 (27th March)
A group of royal councillors unhappy with the way the Duke of Somerset was handling government, nominated Richard Duke of York as Protector in his stead.
1454 (late March)
Richard appointed his father-in-law, Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, as Lord Chancellor of England.
Henry VI regained his mental capacity. He put Somerset back in control of government. The Earl of Salisbury resigned as Chancellor in protest.
Richard Duke of York, the Earl of Warwick and the Earl of Salisbury began raising troops against King Henry and Somerset.
1455 (22nd May)
Wars of the Roses
First Battle of St Albans
This battle saw the forces of Richard Duke of York, Warwick and Salisbury defeat the Lancastrians led by Somerset and Northumberland. Somerset was killed in the battle and King Henry was captured. The battle marked the beginning of the conflict between the Lancastrians and Yorkists called the Wars of the Roses.
1455 (3rd May)
With the King under his control, Richard Duke of York became Protector of the realm again.
Warwick was appointed Captain of Calais as a reward for his support of Richard of York.
1455 (22nd July)
A daughter, Ursula, was born to Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville at Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire. She died at a young age.
Richard Duke of York was dismissed as regent when Henry VI resumed personal rule supported by Queen Margaret.
Richard was sent north to defend the border against a possible invasion by King James II of Scotland. His position as Lieutenant of Ireland was also restored.
Parliament was summoned but Richard and his father-in-law were not summoned. This meant it was likely that they were to be charged with treason.
1459 (23rd September)
Battle of Blore Heath
Richard Duke of York supported by Salisbury fought off a Lancastrian attack that was supported by the Percy family.
1459 (late September)
The Earl of Warwick who had exiled himself to France now crossed the Channel to join Richard and the Earl of Salisbury.
1459 (12th – 13th October)
Rout of Ludlow
Richard of York, Warwick and the Nevilles mustered their supporters at Ludlow but when the main Lancastrian army appeared their men deserted. York fled to Ireland and Warwick and Salisbury fled back to Calais taking the Duke of York’s son, Edward
, with them. Richard’s wife, Cecily and their sons, George and Richard were captured and imprisoned at Coventry.
Richard Duke of York, Richard Neville Earl of Warwick and the Earl of Salisbury were attained and their titles and lands confiscated by the King.
Warwick travelled from Calais to Ireland to meet with Richard of York.
1460 (26th June)
Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, his father Earl of Salisbury and Richard Duke of York’s son, Edward, Earl of March
landed at Sandwich at the head of an army and marched towards London.
1460 (2nd July)
Richard’s father, Earl of Salisbury, was left in charge of a force that lay siege to the Tower of London. Warwick and the Earl of March rode north.
1460 (10th July)
Battle of Northampton
Warwick and Edward, Earl of March defeated a Lancastrian force led by Humphrey, Stafford and Buckingham. They captured King Henry VI. Margaret of Anjou and Prince Edward fled to Harlech Castle.
1460 (14th July)
The Earl of Warwick and Edward Earl of March returned to London with Henry VI in captivity.
1460 (19th July)
Warwick and Edward Earl of March used their forces to defeat the Lancastrians in the Tower of London.
1460 (9th September)
Richard of York claimed the English throne but the landowners refused to accept him as anything other than heir to the throne.
1460 (25th October)
Act of Accord
Richard Duke of York was named successor to the throne over Henry VI’s son, Edward.
1460 (30th December)
Battle of Wakefield
, unwilling to accept the disinheritance of her son Edward, raised an army in the north. Richard of York was forced to march north where he was defeated and killed by the Lancastrian army.