Wars Fought in the Middle East Timeline 499 BCE-Present Day

Syrian War

This timeline details the main wars that have taken place in the Middle East

 

499 BCE to 449 BCE
Greco-Persian Wars
Fought between: Greek City States against Persian Empire
Location: Greece, Cyprus, Egypt, Aegean
Result: Greek victory
335 BCE to 323 BCE
Wars of Alexander the Great
Fought between: Macedon against Persian Empire, Greek City States, Ilyria, Thrace
Location: Balkan Region, Greece, Asia Minor, Syria, Holy Lands, Egypt, Turkey, Afghanistan
Result: Alexander’s Empire expanded
66 BCE to 217 CE
Roman-Parthian War
Fought between: Roman Republic/Empire against Parthian Empire
Location: Anatolia (Turkey), Armenia, Syria, Judea, Mesopotamia
Result: Stalemate
421 to 422
Roman-Sassanid War (Part of the Roman-Persian Wars)
Fought between: Eastern Roman Empire against Sassanid Empire (Iran)
Location: Persarmenia (Armenia), Mesopotamia (Iran)
Result: Sassanid Empire agreed to tolerate Christianity and the Roman Empire agreed to tolerate Zoroastrianism.
484 to 572
Samaritan Revolts
Fought between: Byzantine Empire against Samaritan Rebels
Location: Samaria (Israel), Byzantine Empire (Turkey, Eastern Mediterranean)
Result: Samaria remained its status as a part of Palaestina
494 to 534
Basus War
Fought between: Taghlib Tribe against Bakur Tribe
Location: Arabia (Arabian Peninsula)
Result: The conflict between the tribes was resolved
502 to 506
Anastasian War (Part of the Roman-Persian Wars)
Fought between: Eastern Roman Empire against Sassanid Empire
Location: Osroene (Armenia), Upper Mesopotamia (Turkey, Syria), Armenia
Result: Stalemate
541 to 562
Lazic War/Colchic War
Fought between: Byzantine Empire against Sassanid Persian Empire
Location: Colchis (Western Georgia)
Result: 50 year peace treaty
572 to 591
Byzantine–Sassanid War
Fought between: Byzantine Empire against Sassanid Persian Empire
Location: Mesopotamia (Iran), Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia), Syria
Result: Byzantine victory
602 to 628
Byzantine–Sassanid War
Fought between: Byzantine Empire against Sassanid Persian Empire
Location: Caucasus (Armenia), Anatolia (Turkey), Egypt, Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Israel), Balkans, Mesopotamia (Iran)
Result: No real change
642 to 652
First Arab–Khazar War
Fought between: Khazar Khaganate against Umayyad Caliphate
Location: Ciscaucasia (South Russia), Transcaucasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia)
Result: Inconclusive
722 to 737
Second Arab–Khazar War
Fought between: Khazar Khaganate against Abbasid Caliphate
Location: Ciscaucasia (South Russia), Transcaucasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia)
Result: The Caliphate took control of Transcaucasia
780 to 1180
Byzantine-Arab Wars
Fought between: Byzantine Empire against Arabs
Location: Levant (Syria), Egypt, North Africa, Anatolia (Turkey), Crete, Sicily, Southern Italy
Result: Arab victory
15th August 1096 to August 1099
First Crusade (Part of The Crusades)
Fought between: Christians against Muslims against
Location: Anatolia (Turkey), Levant (Syria)
Result: Victory for the Crusaders which included the capture of Jerusalem.
March 1147 to April 1149
Second Crusade (Part of The Crusades)
Fought between: Christians against Muslims against
Location: Anatolia (Turkey), Egypt, Iberia (Spain), Levant (Syria)
Result: Moors expelled from Lisbon, Iberia captured by the Crusaders, Crusaders defeated in Anatolia and the Levant.
May 1189 to 9th October 1192
Third Crusade/Kings’ Crusade (Part of The Crusades)
Fought between Muslims led by Saladin against Christians led by Frederick I, Richard I, Philip II
Location: Anatolia (Turkey), Levant (Syria)
Result: Treaty of Jaffa – a negotiated peace treaty which allowed both Christians and Muslims access to Jerusalem.
October 1202 to 13th April 1204
Fourth Crusade (Part of The Crusades)
Fought between: Christians against Muslims
Location: Anatolia (Turkey), The Balkans
Result: Partition of the Byzantine Empire into the Latin Empire and the Nicene Empire
October 1217 to July 1221
Fifth Crusade (Part of The Crusades)
Fought between: Christians against Muslims
Location: Egypt, Levant (Syria)
Result: Muslim victory and eight-year truce agreed.
1228 to 17th March 1229
Sixth Crusade (Part of The Crusades)
Fought between: Christians led by Frederick II against Muslims
Location: Anatolia (Turkey), Egypt, Levant (Syria)
Result: Crusader victory – Christians gained control of Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazareth, Jaffa and Sidon
May 1271 to December 1272
Prince Edward’s Crusade/Ninth Crusade (Part of The Crusades)
Fought between: Muslims against Christians led by Prince Edward of England
Location: Anatolia (Turkey), Egypt, Levant (Syria)
Result: Neither side victorious, Muslims retained control of Jerusalem, ten-year truce agreed.
4th April 1291 to 18th May 1291
Fall of Acre/Last Crusade (Part of The Crusades)
Fought between: Muslims against Christians
Location: Acre
Result: Muslims captured Acre, Crusaders driven out
1380s to 17th February 1405
Conquests of Timur (Tamerlane)
Fought between: Timur (Turk-Mongol Conqueror) against the remaining Mongol Empire states
Location: Afghanistan, Iran, North India, South Russia, Uzbekistan
Result: founding of the Timurid Empire
May 1521 to 6th September 1566
Wars of Suleiman the Magnificent

Fought between: Ottoman Empire against Hapsburg Empire, Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, Persia
Location: Hungary, Persia (Iran), Iraq, Moldova

1967, 5th June to 1967, 10th June
Six Day War
Fought between: Israel against Egypt, Syria, Jordan
Location: Middle East
Result: Israeli victory
1973, 6th October to 1973, 24th October
Yom Kippur War
Fought between: Israel against Syria
Location: Golan Heights, Sinai region, Suez Canal
Result: Israeli victory
1990, 2nd August to 1991, 3rd March
Gulf War
Fought between: Kuwait, UN Security Forces against Iraq
Location: Iraq
Result: Iraq defeat
1994, 4th May to 1994, 7th July
Yemen Civil War
Fought between: Republic of Yemen, United States, Jordan, Qatar, Egypt, Sudan, Iran, India against Democratic Republic of Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Lebanon, Iraq, Libya, Kuwait, Bahrain, UAE, Cuba, N Korea, China
Location: Yemen
Result: Republic of Yemen victory
2003, 20th March to 2011, 11th December
Iraq War
Fought between: USA, UK, (multi-national forces withdrawn before end of conflict) against Al-Qaeda
Location: Iraq, Syria
Result: Al-Quaeda defeated
2008, December 28th to 2009, January 18th
Gaza War (Part of the Arab-Israeli Conflict)
Fought between: Gaza Strip against Israel
Location: Israel, Gaza Strip
Result: Israeli victory
2011, 27th January to 2012, 27th February
Yemeni Revolution (Part of the Arab Spring)
Fought between: Saleh government against Popular protests, demonstrations, strikes, self-immolation
Location: Yemen
Result: Overthrow of the Saleh government, lack of unity led to ongoing Yemen Civil War
2011, 15th March, ongoing
Syrian Civil War
Fought between: Bashar al-Assad government against Rebel forces including ISIS
Location: Syria
2012, 14th November to 2012, 21st November
Gaza War (Part of the Arab-Israeli Conflict)
Fought between: Gaza Strip against Israel
Location: Gaza Strip, Israel
Result: Ceasefire
began 2014, 1st January to 2017, 9th December
Iraqi Civil War
Fought between: Iraq and allies against Islamic State
Location: Iraq
Result: Iraq victory
2015, 26th March, ongoing
Yemeni Civil War
Fought between: Various factions seeking to take control of government
Location: Yemen
2015, 24th July, ongoing
Kurdish-Turkish Conflict
Fought between: Turkey against Kurdistan region
Location: South East Turkey, Northern Syria, Northern Iraq
2019, 5th May, ongoing
Persian Gulf Crisis
Fought between: United States and allies against Iran
Location: Persian Gulf, Iraq

 

First published 2015; updated and republished Feb 03 2022 @ 11:19 am – Updated – Nov 15, 2022 @ 6:57 PM

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2015 – 2022). Wars Fought in the Middle East 499 BCE to Present Day.

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