Henry Hudson was born in England.
Henry began a life at sea by working as a cabin boy.
A son, John was born. It is believed his mother was called Katherine. She and Hudson had two other children, Oliver and Robert.
The English Muscovy Company hired Hudson to search for the famed Northwest Passage to Asia. If found the route, through Baffin Bay, across the north of Canada and through the Bering Sea would vastly shorten the sailing time from Europe to Asia. Hudson’s grandfather may have been one of the founders of the company.
1607 (1st May)
The ‘Hopewell’, captained by Hudson with a crew of 10 men left England. Hudson’s son, John accompanied him on the voyage.
1607 (14th June)
The ‘Hopewell’ reached Greenland and followed the east coast northwards.
1607 (27th July)
Hudson and his crew reached Svalbard where they encountered pack ice and were forced to turn south.
1607 (15th September)
Henry Hudson returned to England docking at Tilbury.
Hudson was recruited by English Merchants of the East India and Muscovy Companies to see if he could find a route to Asia sailing north of Russia.
1608 (22nd April)
Henry Hudson, his son John and his crew of 14 men, set sail from London in the ‘Hopewell’.
The ‘Hopewell’ sailed north to the Arctic Circle and reached Novaya Zemlya before encountering pack ice and turning back.
1608 (26th August)
Hudson arrived back in England, docking at Gravesend.
The Dutch East India Company hired Henry Hudson to find the Northwest Passage to Asia. He was instructed to search for a route north of Russia.
1609 (6th April)
Henry Hudson sailed from Amsterdam in the ship ‘Halve Maen’ (Half Moon).
1609 (mid May)
As with his previous voyage, Hudson travelled north but his route was blocked by pack ice. Rather than returning to Amsterdam, Henry Hudson decided to sail west and seek a route through North America.
1609 (2nd July)
The ‘Halve Maen’ reached Newfoundland.
1609 (mid July)
Hudson and the ‘Halve Maen’ had continued south and reached Nova Scotia where they docked to repair a broken mast.
1609 (25th July)
Members of Hudson’s crew went ashore armed with muskets and approached a nearby village. Rather than trade with the natives they drove them from their village and stole animal furs and other goods.
1609 (4th August)
The ‘Halve Maen’ reached Cape Cod and continued south.
1609 (3rd September)
Hudson had reached Chesapeake Bay but had then turned north and sailed past Delaware Bay to North River (now named Hudson River).
1609 (11th September)
The ‘Halve Maen’ began sailing up the Hudson River.
1609 (21st September)
Having sailed up the Hudson River for 10 days, it became clear that this was not a route through America. Hudson turned the ship and sailed back to Europe.
1609 (7th November)
Henry Hudson docked at Dartmouth, England. His ship was seized by English authorities who were angry that Hudson had undertaken the voyage for another country.
Henry Hudson was given backing for another voyage by the Virginia Company and the British East India Company to search for the Northwest Passage. This time he would search north of the American continent.
1610 (17th April)
Hudson, his son, John and crew set sail in the ‘Discovery’.
1610 (11th May)
The ‘Discovery’ reached Iceland and sailed towards Greenland.
1610 (4th June)
Henry Hudson passed south of Greenland.
1610 (25th June)
The ‘Discovery’ passed north of Labrador and entered what is now known as Hudson Strait.
1610 (2nd August)
Henry Hudson sailed into a large bay (Hudson Bay) and believed he had found the Northwest Passage. He began sailing along the coast mapping the region and searching for the passage to Asia.
Having reached James Bay, the ‘Discovery’ became trapped in ice and the crew went ashore to find shelter until the ice melted.
The ice in Hudson Bay melted which meant the ship could continue on its quest to search for the Northwest Passage. However, Hudson’s crew wanted to return home and became mutinous.
1611 (22nd June)
The conflict between Henry Hudson and his crew worsened after he demoted Robert Juet and Hudson faced a mutiny. The crew took control of the ‘Discovery’ and put Hudson, his son and seven crewmen who remained loyal to the Captain, in a small open rowing boat with some provisions. The ‘Discovery’ then sailed for home.
1611 (23rd June)
This was the last time that Henry Hudson and those cast adrift in the small boat were seen.
The ‘Discovery’ returned to England. Only eight of the crew had survived the return journey. They were arrested, but were acquitted.