This timeline details all Kings and Queens of the Netherlands from 1815 to present day.
In 1795, the Batavian Revolution had overthrown the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands which was led by a hereditory Stadtholder. The Batavian Republic ended in 1806 when Napoleon placed his brother on the throne as King Louis I. In 1810 the Kingdom of the Netherlands became part of the French Empire. When Napoleon fell in October 1813 the Netherlands became independent again. Willem Frederik, son of the last Stadtholder, William V, became Sovereign Prince. In 1815 He became King Willem I.
Married 1. Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia, 2. Henriëtte d’Oultremont de Wégimont
When his father was overthrown in 1795, Willem had fled to Britain where he remained in exile until 1813. He served the Netherlands as Crown Prince until he became King in 1815. He abdicated in favour of his son in 1840.
Married Anna Pavlovna of Russia (daughter of Tsar Paul I)
Became king after his father abdicated in his favour. In 1848 he agreed a new constitution which made the Netherlands a parliamentary democracy. He remained king until his death in 1849.
Married 1. Sophie of Württemberg, 2. Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont
Willem became king after his father’s death. He tried to overturn the new constitution and take back more power but he was unsuccessful. His first marriage produced 3 children but they all died before their father. Willem’s daughter Wilhelmina was 10 years old when he died.
Married Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Became queen at the age of 10 years on the death of her father. Her mother, Emma, acted as regent until she came of age. Wilhelmina proclaimed the Netherlands neutral during World War One. When Nazi Germany invaded the Netherlands in 1940, Wilhelmina fled to Britain where she led the Dutch government-in-exile. After her return to the Netherlands in 1945, her health began to fail and she abdicated in favour of her daughter.
Married Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld
Became queen after her mother abdicated. In 1949 she oversaw the independence of the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia). In 1956 she narrowly survived a scandal where she was overly influenced by faith healer Greet Hofmans. Her husband threatened to divorce her but backed down after Hofmans was banished. In 1973 Juliana celebrated her Silver Jubilee. She abdicated in favour of her daughter in 1980.
Married Claus von Amsberg
Succeeded after her mother abdicated. In 1986 Aruba became independent from the Netherlands. Beatrix celebrated her Silver Jubilee in 2005. In 2010 the Netherlands Antilles was formally dissolved. In 2009 Beatrix and other members of her family were the target when a car was deliberately driven into a parade. Six people died in the attack. Beatrix abdicated in 2013.
Married Máxima Zorreguieta
Willem-Alexander became king after his mother abdicated. He is a keen sportsman and supported the Netherlands bid for the 2028 Summer Olympic Games.
Published May 9, 2020 @ 7:25 pm – Updated – [last-modified]
Harvard Reference for this page:
Heather Y Wheeler. (2020). Kings and Queens of the Netherlands 1815 – Present Day. https://www.thetimelinegeek.com/kings-and-queens-of-the-netherlands Last accessed [date]