Octavian, Caesar Augustus Timeline 63 BCE-14 CE

Caesar AugustusBorn – 23rd September 63 BCE
Died – 19th August 14 CE
Father – Gaius Octavius (100 – 59 BCE)
Adoptive FatherJulius Caesar (100 – 44 BCE)
Mother – Atia Balba Caesoia (85 – 43 BCE)
Spouses – m. 43 BCE div 41 BCE – Clodia Pulchra (b. 56 BCE); m. 40 BCE div 39 BCE – Scribonia (70 BCE – 16 CE); m. 38 BCE – Livia
Children – by Scribonia – Julia (39 BCE – 14 CE)
Adopted – his grandson Lucius (17 BCE – 2 CE), his grandson Gaius (20 BCE – 4 CE), his grandson Agrippa (12 BCE – 14 CE), his stepson Tiberius (42 BCE – 37 CE)
Emperor of Rome – 27 BCE – 14 CE
Succeeded by – Tiberius – 14 CE – 37 CE


63 BCE (23rd September)
Octavian was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus to Gaius Octavius and Atia Balba Caesonia, niece to Julius Caesar, at Ox Head on the Palatine Hill in Rome.
63 BCE (after)
Octavian was taken to the village of Velletri to be raised by his grandparents.
61 BCE (during)
Octavian’s father was appointed praetor.
60 BCE (during)
Octavian’s father was appointed propraetor and given the governorship of Macedonia for the followiing year.
60 BCE (during)
Octavian’s father was sent to put down a slave rebellion in Thurii. He then left to take up his position in Macedonia.
59 BCE (during)
Octavian’s father died in Nola. He was en route to Rome to stand as consul.
59 BCE (during)
Octavian’s mother married Lucius Marcius Philippus. Octavian’s stepfather was not interested in Octavian and so he was raised by his maternal grandmother, Julia, sister of Julius Caesar.
56 BCE (during)
Octavian’s stepfather, Lucius Marcius Philippus, was elected consul.
51 BCE (during)
Octavian’s grandmother, Julia, died. Octavian gave the funeral oration.
47 BCE (during)
Octavian was elected to the College of Pontiffs.
46 BCE (during)
Octavian was put in charge of organising the Greek Games.
46 BCE (during)
Octavian planned to join Julius Caesar in Hispania but he fell ill and was unable to travel.
45 BCE (during)
Octavian was eventually able to join his great-uncle after being shipwrecked and walking through hostile territory. Julius Caesar was impressed with Octavian and when he returned to Rome he made a new will naming Octavian as his heir.
44 BCE (early)
Octavian was receiving military training in Illyria.
44 BCE (15th March)
Octavian’s great-uncle, Julius Caesar was assassinated by a conspiracy of Senators calling themselves the Liberators. When Julius Caesar entered the Senate he was immediately surrounded by a number of senators. Caesar initially believed they were wishing to pay their respects and was shocked when he was stabbed for the first time. When he realised what was happening and that he was powerless to stop the violence he covered his head with his toga. He was stabbed 23 times with the final wound being inflicted by Marcus Brutus.
44 BCE (16th March)
Consul Marc Antony took control of Caesar’s money and papers.
44 BCE (17th March)
Marc Antony called a meeting of the Senate. He offered the assassins an amnesty in exchange for recognition of himself as leader of Rome.
44 BCE (19th March)
Julius Caesar’s will was read. It revealed that he had chosen to posthumously adopt Octavian and make him his heir.
44 BCE (20th March)
Julius Caesar’s body was burned in the forum. Marc Antony made an inflammatory speech to the citizens of Rome blaming the liberators for Caesar’s death. Many of the liberators fled Rome following the speech.
44 BCE (May)
When he learned that his great-uncle had been assassinated, Octavian returned to Italy. He landed at Lupiae near Brundisium. Here he learned that he had been adopted by Julius Caesar and made his heir. Octavian changed his name to Gaius julius Caesar Octavianus to reflect his adoption.
44 BCE (May)
Octavian decided that as his great-uncle’s heir he would take control of Rome. In order to do this he needed to enter Rome with an army. His great-uncle had been planning a war against the Parthian Empire and had money and troops stationed at Brundisium. Octavian took control of that money and those troops that wished to follow him, around 3,000 men.
44 BCE (6th May)
Octavian and his army reached Rome. Octavian learned of Marc Antony’s truce with the Senate and the amnesty for the Liberators. He was further angered when Marc Antony refused to hand over Julius Caesar’s money.
44 BCE (Summer)
Octavian began to win over a number of senators, mostly those that had been opposed to Caesar, including Cicero.
44 BCE (November)
Octavian took control of Rome from Marc Antony after winning over two of Marc Antony’s legions. This caused Marc Antony to flee to Cisalpine Gaul which he had been granted by the Senate but which was held by Decimus Brutus, one of the Liberators.
44 BCE (December)
Decimus Brutus refused to give up Cisalpine Gaul so Marc Antony lay siege to him at Mutina.
43 BCE (March)
Octavian was sent at the head of an army controlled by the consuls Hirtius and Pansa, to break Marc Antony’s siege of Mutina.
43 BCE (14th April)
Battle of Forum Gallorum
This battle saw Marc Antony defeat the forces controlled by consul Pansa. Pansa was mortally wounded and died 8 days later.
43 BCE (21st April)
Battle of Mutina
This battle, between forces commanded by consul Hirtius and led by Octavian saw consul Hirtius killed, leaving Octavian in charge of the forces against Marc Antony. Octavian chose to make peace with Marc Antony knowing that together they could destroy the republic and destroy the assassins of Julius Caesar.
43 BCE (Spring)
In the East, Brutus and Cassius began to raise forces to take Rome from Octavian and restore the Senate.
43 BCE (27th November)
Second Triumvirate
This was an agreement between Octavian, Marc Antony and Lepidus to kill the assassins of Julius Caesar, destroy the republic and take control of Rome.
43 BCE (late)
Octavian married Clodia Pulchra, stepdaughter to Marc Antony.
43 BCE (7th December)
The orator Marcus Cicero was executed as an enemy of the state.
42 BCE (1st January)
Octavian was appointed Consul. The Senate formally recognised Julius Caesar as Divus Lulius, a god of the Roman state. This enabled Octavian to add Divi Filius, son of God, to his name.
42 BCE (during)
Octavian was appointed consul of Rome. He declared the amnesty granted to the Liberators to be illegal and proclaimed the assassins of Julius Caesar to be outlaws – their estates were to be sold and proceeds used to fund troops to destroy Brutus and Cassius. He founded the Temple of Caesar.
42 BCE (Autumn)
Octavian and Marc Antony crossed the Adriatic sea with 28 legions to meet the forces of Brutus and Cassius.
42 BCE (3rd October)
Battle of Philippi
In this first engagement of the battle, Brutus managed to overrun Octavian’s camp. However, Marc Antony had defeated the forces of Cassius and Cassius committed suicide rather than be captured.
42 BCE (23rd October)
Battle of Philippi
In this second engagement Octavian and Marc Antony defeated Brutus. Brutus fled the battlefield.
42 BCE (after 23rd October)
Marcus Brutus committed suicide rather than face capture by Octavian and Marc Antony. Marc Antony found Brutus’s body and wrapped it in cloth and took it back to camp for cremation. Octavian insisted that the corpse be beheaded and the head displayed.
42 BCE (after 23rd October)
Marc Antony sent Brutus’s ashes to his mother Servilia.
42 BCE (November)
The members of the Second Triumvirate re-negotiated their territories. Octavian took control of Gaul, Hispania and Italy, Marc Antony took control of the Eastern provinces and Lepidus was left with Africa.
42 BCE (late)
Octavian needed to find settlements for his army. In order to provide land for his soldiers he had to confiscate land from many Roman citizens, a move that caused widespread dissatisfaction among the people but which was preferable to having disgruntled soldiers turn on him. Disgruntled Roman citizens began to ally themselves with Marc Antony’s brother, Lucius Antonius.
41 BCE (during)
Octavian divorced his wife, Clodia Pulchra.
41 BCE (during)
Clodia’s mother, Fulvia, now married to Marc Antony, raised troops to fight with Lucius Antonius against Octavian.
40 BCE (early)
Octavian placed the forces of Fulvia and Lucius Antonius under siege at Perusia (Perugia) and forced them to surrender.
40 BCE (15th March)
Octavian executed 300 senetors and equestrians that had allied with Lucius Antonius against him.
40 BCE (during)
Octavian married Scribonia, daughter of Lucius Scribonius Libo, a follower of Sextus Pompeius, son of Pompey Magnus.
40 BCE (Autumn)
Marc Antony returned to Italy with a large force to take Rome from Octavian. After landing he lay siege to Brundisium. However, many of his troops refused to fight against Octavian and the two forged a new agreement.
40 BCE (Autumn)
Treaty of Brundisium
This new agreement between Marc Antony and Octavian agreed that Lepidus would remain in Africa, Marc Antony would retain the east and Octavian would keep the west.
40 BCE (Autumn)
Marc Antony’s wife, Fulvia, had died. Octavian offered him the hand of his sister, Octavia.
40 BCE (late)
Marc Antony married Octavian’s sister, Octavia.
39 BCE (during)
Sextus Pompeius, son of Pompey Magnus, mounted a blockade of Italian Mediterranean ports to try to remove power from Octavian.
39 BCE (during)
Treaty of Misenium
This treaty was an agreement between Octavian and Sextus Pompeius. Sextus agreed to lift the blockade of Italy in exchange for Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily and the Peloponnese. Octavian also promised to make him consul in 35 BCE.
39 BCE (30th October)
A daughter, Julia was born to Scribonia and Octavian.
39 BCE (30th October)
Octavian divorced his wife Scribonia because he wanted to marry Livia Drusilla, wife of Tiberius Claudius Nero. Livia had a son, Tiberius and was pregnant with her second child.
39 BCE (late)
Treaty of Tarentum
This was a renewal of the Triumvirate to last a further 5 years after its expiry in 38 BCE to 33 BCE. Marc Antony agreed to provide ships to help Octavian defeat Sextus Pompey and Octavian promised troops to help Marc Antony fight the Parthathians. The treaty was sealed with the betrothal of Marc Antony’s six year old son Marcus Antonius Antyllus to Octavian’s daughter, Julia.
39 BCE (late)
Octavian persuaded Livia’s husband to divorce her.
38 BCE (during)
Octavian began to call himself Imperator Caesar.
38 BCE (14th January)
Livia gave birth to a son, Nero.
38 BCE (17th January)
Octavian married Livia.
38 BCE (Spring)
The agreement between Octavian and Sextus Pompeius broke down after Corsica and Sardinia were returned to Octavian by two of Pompeius’s generals.
36 BCE (during)
Octavian and Lepidus joined forces against Sextus Pompeius.
36 BCE (3rd September)
Battle of Naulochus
A naval force led by general Agrippa for Octavian defeated the fleet of Sextus Pompeius. Sextus fled north.
36 BCE (after 3rd September)
Sextus Pompeius was captured and executed.
36 BCE (after 3rd September)
Lepidus attempted to take Sicily but his troops refused to fight and many defected to Octavian. Lepidus was left with little choice but to surrender to Octavian. Octavian spared his life but removed him from the Triumvirate.
36 BCE (Autumn)
Octavian declared that he would step down as triumvir if Marc Antony would agree to do the same. When Marc Antony refused he used this to convince the Senate that Marc Antony wished to keep power for himself. Octavian also managed to convince many that Marc Antony’s allegiance lay more with the east than with Rome.
34 BCE (during)
Marc Antony’s forces took the Kingdom of Armenia. Marc Antony made his son, Alexander, ruler of the land. He also granted Cleopatra the title Queen of Kings.
33 BCE (during)
Octavian was appointed consul. He used his position to continue to denounce Marc Antony and accuse him of favouring Egypt and the east.
32 BCE (Autumn)
Although a large number of senators left Rome and defected to Marc Antony, others defected to Octavian. Munatius Plancus and Marcus Titus were two defectors from Marc Antony that confirmed that his sentiments were more with the east than with Rome.
32 BCE (Autumn)
Octavian took Marc Antony’s will from the temple of the Vestal Virgins and then publicised the details which revealed he planned to leave Roman territories to his sons with Cleopatra.
32 BCE (late)
Following the revelation of the contents of his will, Marc Antony’s position as consul was revoked.
31 BCE (early)
Octavian and Agrippa managed to take a large number of troops across the Adriatic Sea to trap Marc Antony’s army in Greece. Many of Antony’s soldiers defected to Octavian.
31 BCE (2nd September)
Battle of Actium
Marc Antony’s forces attempted to break the naval blockade by Octavian’s fleet. Although Octavian was victorious, Marc Antony and Cleopatra managed to escape and fled to Egypt.
30 BCE (1st August)
Octavian defeated the forces of Marc Antony and Cleopatra at Alexandria, Egypt. Rather than face capture Marc Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, Marc Antony by falling on his own sword, Cleopatra by poisonous asp or poison.
30 BCE (August)
Octavian ordered the execution of Cleopatra and Julius Caesar’s son, Caesarion and Marc Antony’s eldest son, Marcus Antonius Antyllus.
27 BCE (during)
Octavian and Agrippa were elected consuls of Rome. The Senate had lost much of its control of legislation and Octavian made a point of seemingly returning power to the Senate. However, in practice many people depended on his patronage for their income and livelihood and so he retained power.
27 BCE (16th January)
Octavian was granted the name Augustus by the Roman Senate. His full name was Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus but he is generally referred to as Augustus after this period.
27 BCE (during)
Augustus was given control of many of the provinces of Rome, including Gaul, Syria, Cilicia, Cyprus and Egypt for a period of 10 years.
25 BCE (during)
Galatia (Turkey) became a Roman province.
23 BCE (during)
Some citizens were beginning to criticise the fact that Augustus had been created consul for 10 years claiming that it reduced opportunities for others to rise to that position.
23 BCE (during)
Augustus and Livia had not had any children of their own. It had been assumed that Augustus’s heir would be Livia’s son from her first marriage, Tiberious, but Octavian began to favour his sister’s son, Marcus Claudius Marcellus.
23 BCE (late Spring)
Augustus was taken ill and was thought to be dying. He arranged for his signet ring to be given to Agrippa, meaning he would control the army while his papers would be given to his co-consul, Piso.
23 BCE (late)
Having recovered from his illness, Augustus decided to give up his consulship. However, he kept his right to control the Roman provinces.
23 BCE (late)
Marcus Primus Affair
Marcus Primus, governor of Macedonia, illgally made war on a Thracian tribe. At his trial he claimed that his action had been sanctioned by Augustus’s nephew, Marcellus. This was an embarrassment to Augustus and he declared that he had not sanctioned the act.
22 BCE (during)
A food shortage in Rome led to calls for Augustus to be created Dictator in order to deal with the crisis. Augustus refused the position of Dictator but agreed to accept powers to deal with the crisis.
22 BCE (during)
A conspiracy led by Murena to reduce the powers of Augustus was uncovered. The conspirators were found guilty and sentenced to death.
21 BCE (during)
Augustus’s friend, General Agrippa, married Augustus’s daughter, Julia.
20 BCE (during)
Augustus provided funding for the building of roads in Italy when the Senate failed to provide sufficient resources.
19 BCE (during)
Augustus was granted imperium proconsulare maius, a position which gave him greater power than all other proconsuls. He was also made tribune for life.
16 BCE (during)
The Alpine region became a province of Rome.
12 BCE (during)
Augustus’s friend General Agrippa died. Augustus made the oration at Agrippa’s funeral.
12 BCE (6th March)
Augustus’s former triumvir, Lepidus, died.
12 BCE (after 6th March)
Augustus became pontifex maximus the most important position in Roman religion.
9 BCE (during)
Augustus’s stepson, Nero Claudius Drusus died after falling from his horse during a campaign against the Germanic tribes.
5 BCE (during)
Augustus served as consul for a year. He used the position to introduce his grandsons to politics.
2 BCE (during)
Augustus served as consul for a year. He again used the position to introduce his grandsons to politics.
2 BCE (5th February)
Augustus was proclaimed pater patriae ‘father of the country’.
2 CE (during)
Augustus’s grandson Lucius died.
4 CE (during)
Augustus’s grandson Gaius died.
4 CE (June)
Augustus summoned his stepson, Tiberius to Rome. Augustus then adopted Tiberius making him his heir.
14 CE (19th August)
Augustus died while visiting Nola. He may have been poisoned by his wife, Livia to preserve his dignity or it may have been that Augustus requested poison for a similar reason.


Published Apr 16, 2018 @ 1:52 pm – Updated – [last-modified]

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2018 – 2020). Octavian, Caesar Augustus 63 BCE – 14 CE. https://www.thetimelinegeek.com/octavian-caesar-augustus-63bce-14ce Last accessed [date]

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