1527 (21st May)
Philip II of Spain was born to Charles I of Spain and Isabella of Portugal at Pimentel Palace, Valladolid, Spain. He was styled Prince of Girona.
Philip was created Prince of Asturias.
1528 (21st March)
Philip’s sister, Maria, was born to Charles I of Spain and Isabella of Portugal at Madrid, Spain.
Philip was nominated as heir to the throne of Spain.
Philip began his education. He was educated by the Roman Catholic priest Juan Martinez Siliceo.
1535 (24th June)
Philip’s sister, Joanna, was born to Charles I of Spain and Isabella of Portugal at Madrid, Spain.
1539 (1st May)
Philip’s mother, Isabella of Portugal, died.
Philip was created Duke of Milan.
Philip began spending time with his father learning how to govern a country.
Philip’s wife Elizabeth died following a miscarriage.
Philip received military training from Juan de Zuniga and also the Duke of Alba. He joined the Duke at the Siege of Perpignan which saw the French defeated by the Spanish.
1543 (12th November)
Philip married his cousin, Maria Manuela, daughter of Juan III of Portugal at Salamanca, Spain.
1545 (8th July)
A son, Carlos, known as Don Carlos, was born to Philip and Maria. He was styled Prince of Asturias.
1545 (12th July)
Philip’s wife, Maria, died from complications following the birth of Don Carlos.
Philip was betrothed to Queen Mary of England
. Under the terms of the marriage treaty, Philip would become King Consort
of England for as long as the marriage lasted.
1554 (23rd July)
Philip arrived at Winchester in England.
1554 (25th July)
Philip married Queen Mary I of England at Winchester Cathedral.
1554 (25th July)
Philip became King of Naples after his father abdicated the throne in his favour.
1554 (2nd October)
Philip was crowned King of Naples by Pope Julius III.
1554 (18th November)
Philip was crowned King of Sicily and Jerusalem by Pope Julius III.
1555 (23rd May)
Gian Pietro Carafa was elected Pope Paul IV. He angered Philip by following an anti-Spanish policy.
In England, an act was passed that would make Philip regent if Mary died in childbirth.
1555 (late July)
It became clear that Mary was not going to have a child.
Philip left England to command his army against France.
Philip declared war on the Papal states in retaliation for Pope Paul IV’s anti-Spanish policy.
1556 (16th January)
Philip became King Philip II of Spain when his father, Charles V of Spain, abdicated in his favour. He was now ruler of Spain, Netherlands, Naples, Milan and Spain’s possessions in the Americas. His brother, Ferdinand, who was already ruler of Austria, became Holy Roman Emperor.
1556 (5th February)
Treaty of Vaucelles
This treaty between France and Spain agreed a peace between the two countries. However, the peace did not last very long.
Philip returned to England. He hoped to persuade Mary to support him in a war against France. Although Mary was happy to support him, her leading councillors opposed any declaration of war because it would adversely affect English trade.
1557 (10th August)
Battle of Saint Quentin
This battle between Spain and France during the Italian Wars saw the Spanish victorious.
1557 (27th August)
Spanish troops commanded by the Duke of Alba had reached the gates of Rome and were ready to attack.
1557 (13th September)
Cardinal Carlo Carafa signed a peace agreement with Philip ending the war with the Papal States.
The Balearic Islands were captured by the Turk, Piyale Pasha, who made slaves of the people and then used the islands as a base to make raids on mainland Spain.
1558 (13th July)
Battle of Gravelines
This was another Spanish victory over the French.
1558 (21st September)
Philip’s father, Charles V, died at Yuste, Spain.
1558 (17th November)
Philip’s wife, Mary I of England, died. She was succeeded by her half-sister, the Protestant Elizabeth
Philip II proposed marriage to Elizabeth I hoping to use his influence to prevent England returning to Protestantism, but she turned him down.
1559 (3rd April)
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
This treaty, signed by France and Spain, ended the fighting between the two countries over Italy. Spain gained Savoy, Genoa and control of Milan, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia. The treaty was to be sealed with the marriage of Philip to Elisabeth of Valois.
Philip organised a Holy League of Spain, Venice, Genoa, the Papal States, Savoy and Malta against the Ottoman Empire.
Philip’s wife, Elisabeth, was delivered of a stillborn son.
Philip nominated his eldest son, Don Carlos, as his heir.
1560 (12th March)
The Holy League captured the island of Djerba.
1560 (9th – 14th May)
Battle of Djerba
The Ottoman Empire sent a fleet commanded by Piyale Pasha to take Djerba from the Holy League. The battle was won by the Ottoman Empire.
Philip moved the royal court to Madrid following a fire in Valladolid.
Philip’s son, Don Carlos, developed mental health issues after falling from his horse and injuring his head.
Philip’s wife, Elisabeth, miscarried twin daughters.
1566 (12th August)
A daughter, Isabella Clara Eugenia was born to Philip and Elisabeth of France.
A daughter, Catalina Micaela was born to Philip and Elisabeth of France.
1568 (3rd October)
Philip’s wife Elisabeth died following a miscarriage.
The Dutch states revolted against Philip’s rule. In retaliation Philip persecuted Protestants and came down hard on those who took part in the revolts.
1568 (17th January)
Philip arrested his son, Don Carlos, for plotting against him and placed him under house arrest.
1568 (24th July)
Philip’s son, Don Carlos, died in Madrid.
Philip married his niece, Anna of Austria, at Segovia, Spain.
1571 (4th December)
A son, Ferdinand, was born to Philip and Anna. He was styled Prince of the Asturias.
Battle of Lepanto
A fleet of the Holy League commanded by Don Juan of Austria scored a decisive victory over the Ottoman fleet.
The Holy League took took Tunis from the Ottoman Empire.
1573 (12th August)
A son, Carlos Laurence, was born to Philip and Anna. He was styled Prince of the Asturias.
1573 (7th September)
Philip’s sister, Joanna died.
The Ottoman Empire re took Tunis from the Holy League.
1575 (30th June)
Philip’s son, Carlos, died.
1575 (15th August)
A son, Diego, was born to Philip and Anna. He was styled Prince of Asturias.
1578 (3rd April)
A son, Philip, was born to Philip and Anna. He was styled Prince of Asturias.
1578 (18th October)
Philip’s son, Ferdinand, died.
Union of Utrecht
This was an alliance between the Dutch provinces against the rule of Philip. They were led by William, Prince of Orange.
A daughter, Maria, was born to Philip and Anna.
Philip’s wife, Anna, died from complications following the birth of her daughter Maria.
1580 (24th July)
Antonio, Prior of Crato, grandson of King Manuel I, claimed the Portuguese throne following the death of his uncle, King Henry, son of Manuel I. Philip believed he had a greater claim to the throne through his mother, Isabella, eldest daughter of Manuel I.
1580 (25th August)
Battle of Alcantara
Philip’s Spanish troops defeated the Portuguese troops of Antonio, Prior of Crato who had taken the Portuguese throne.
1580 (27th August)
The Spanish troops in Portugal led by the Duke of Alba, captured Lisbon.
Antonio, Prior of Crato who had taken the Portuguese throne, fled to France.
Philip was recognised as King of Portugal, claiming the throne through descent from his Portuguese mother.
1582 (21st November)
Philip’s son, Diego, died.
1583 (5th August)
Philip’s daughter, Maria, died
William of Orange, leader of the Dutch rebels, was assassinated by a Catholic loyalist.
A peace was agreed between the Holy League and the Ottoman Empire.
Treaty of Nonsuch
This was a treaty between the Netherlands and England whereby Elizabeth promised military support to the Dutch against the Spanish.
1585 (after August)
Philip was annoyed when Elizabeth of England sent troops, led by Robert Dudley
, Earl of Leicester, to the Netherlands to support Protestants who were fighting against his rule.
Philip was furious when Elizabeth I of England executed the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots for treason. Philip, like many Catholics believed that Mary, granddaughter of Henry VIII’s elder sister, was the rightful Queen of England and that Elizabeth was illegitimate.
Philip II pf Spain sent the Spanish Armada
to invade England. He hoped to depose Elizabeth, take the throne of England and restore Catholicism. The fleet of ships were to sail to the Netherlands and the Duke of Parma and Spanish troops before invading England.
1588 (29th July)
The English sent eight fire ships (ships loaded with gunpowder and wood that would explode when fired at) to attack the Spanish ships anchored off Gravelines. The Spanish commander, Medina Sidonia, gave an order for the ships to cut their anchor cables and sail east, away from the English. However, the English continued to attack firing on the ships at close range forcing the Spanish ships into the North Sea. To return to Spain they had to sail around Scotland.
1588 (early August)
The Spanish Armada ships were met with storms and gale force winds in the North Sea. Most of the ships had cut their anchors to escape Gravelines and, unable to drop anchor, around half of the ships were battered and destroyed.
Philip two further Armadas to try to invade England but both failed.
1598 (13th September)
Philip died at El Escorial near Madrid. He was succeeded by his son, Philip.