1914 (2nd August)
Enver Pasha, ruler of Turkey, signed a secret alliance with Germany. The Turks wanted to put pressure on Russia and gain the return of land lost during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878.
1914 (4th August)
Britain declared war on Germany after Germany violated Belgian neutrality.
1914 (11th August)
Turkey closed the Dardanelles (the strait that leads to the Sea of Marmara) to Allied ships.
1914 (late Autumn)
The offensives by both sides on the Western Front had not seen any major gains and both sides had dug themselves into trenches. This meant there was no overland route between Britain and France and Russia and with the Dardanelles closed to Allied ships Russia was isolated.
1914 (16th October)
Troops from the New Zealand Expeditionary Force (NZEF) left New Zealand.
1914 (28th October)
A joint Turkish/German naval mission attacked Odessa and Sevastopol.
1914 (1st November)
Troops from the Australian Expeditionary Force (AIF) left Australia. They were to undergo training in Egypt before being deployed to the Western Front.
1914 (2nd November)
Russia declared war on Turkey.
1914 (5th November)
Britain and France declared war on Turkey.
1914 (5th November)
Cyprus, a protectorate of the British Empire, was annexed by the British.
1914 (mid November)
Turkey began to place mines in the Dardanelles.
1914 (late November)
, First Lord of the Admiralty, suggested that the Allies mount a naval attack on the Dardanelles, He believed the region could be easily occupied and would provide a base for further attacks on Turkey thus relieving the pressure on Russia.
1914 (1st December)
The AIF reached Egypt.
1914 (3rd December)
The NZEF reached Egypt.
1914 (18th December)
Amid concerns over the Suez Canal, Britain made Egypt a British protectorate.
1914 (21st December)
Major General Birdwood was appointed Commander of the newly formed Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC).
1914 (22nd December – 17th January)
Battle of Sarikamish
Turkey suffered heavy losses in this battle against Russia.
1915 (2nd January)
Tsar Nicholas of Russia made an appeal to Britain for help against the Turks.
1915 (late January)
The British began putting together plans for an attack on the Gallipoli Peninsula.
1915 (17th February)
A British plane made a reconnaissance flight over the Dardanelles.
1915 (19th February)
An Anglo-French naval force began bombarding the Dardanelles. The aim was to destroy coastal artillery batteries. They also began clearing the area of mines.
1915 (23rd February)
The Allies took control of the island of Lemnos.
British officer, Ian Hamilton was given command of the Gallipoli operation.
1915 (early March)
The British believed that their bombardment was having some effect and that the Turks were running low on ammunition.
1915 (18th March)
The Allies began a naval attack at the narrowest point of the Dardanelles. However, under heavy fire, allied minesweepers were unable to do their job and three ships were lost when they struck mines. Other ships were damaged by artillery fire or mine explosions.
1915 (after 18th March)
With the failure of the naval assaults, it was decided the best strategy would be to land troops on the beaches and make an infantry assault on the Turkish gun posts to enable ships and minesweepers to navigate the Dardanelles.
1915 (early April)
With no further attacks by the Allies, the Turks were able to strengthen their defences in the Dardanelles. Roads were repaired, barbed wire was placed along the beaches as well as explosive devices.
1915 (12th April)
The ANZACs were moved to the Greek island of Lemnos in preparation for their landings at Gallipoli.
1915 (25th April)
Allied troops landed on the peninsula. The ANZACs north of Gaa Tepe, renamed Anzac, the British 29th Division at Helles, the French at Kum Kale.
1915 (25th April)
The ANZACs soon faced heavy fire and those troops that made it off the beach discovered their maps were inaccurate. Around 2,000 men were killed or seriously wounded on this day alone.
1915 (25th April)
At Helles, the British and British Empire force suffered huge losses to Turkish artillery fire and any advance inshore was hampered. However, once the Turks had run out of ammunition they were able to leave the beaches.
1915 (26th April)
British troops captured Seddülbahir village after heavy fighting.
1915 (27th April)
A force of Turks attacked the ANZACs but were repelled.
1915 (28th April)
First Battle of Krithia
The Allies made an assault on Krithia hoping to take the village. However, the Turks were prepared and the mission failed with around 3,000 allied casualties.
1915 (30th April)
Turkish reinforcements arrived to strengthen their position. It became clear that the Allies could not quickly capture the peninsula as planned.
1915 (6th – 8th May)
Second Battle of Krithia
A combined Allied force of ANZAC, British and French were unable to take Krithia.
1915 (18th May)
Australian Major General Bridges was killed in action. The death of Bridges shocked the Allies.
1915 (19th May)
A Turkish attack on Anzac was repelled with heavy casualties.
1915 (29th May)
Australian Major Hugh Quinn was killed during a Turkish attack on his post.
For the troops deployed to Gallipoli, the Summer brought harsh conditions. As well as constant attacks by the Turks, the heat of the Turkish summer caused immense hardship. There was a lack of drinking water and the high casualty rate attracted swarms of flies and other insects. Throughout the Gallipoli Campaign around 145,000 men died from sickness.
1915 (4th June)
Third Battle of Krithia
This was a third attempt to take Krithia. Despite initial successes the Allies again failed to take Krithia and suffered heavy casualties.
1915 (21st June)
French troops took Haricot Redoubt at Helles.
1915 (28th June)
Battle of Gully Ravine
A British Empire force of British and Gurkha troops defeated a Turkish force but suffered heavy losses.
1915 (6th – 21st August)
Battle of Sari Bair/ August Offensive
This was a new offensive by the Allies to take control of the Gallipoli Peninsula. Sari Bair was a ridge of high ground which, if taken, would give the Allies a strategic foothold to take the Dardanelles. However, the Allies were ultimately defeated by the Turks.
1915 (6th September)
Bulgaria agreed to enter the conflict in support of Turkey.
1915 (16th October)
Commander Ian Hamilton was replaced by General Monro after refusing to consider a retreat from Gallipoli.
1915 (30th October)
General Monro arrived in Gallipoli and determined that Allied troops should be withdrawn from the region.
1915 (15th November)
Winston Churchill, First Lord of the Admiralty and architect of the Gallipoli Campaign, resigned.
1915 (7th December)
The British government officially ordered the evacuation of troops from the Dardanelles. </div
1916 (9th January)
The evacuation of Allied troops from Gallipoli was complete.
Published Mar 02 2021 @ 12:22 pm – Updated – [last-modified]
Harvard Reference for this page:
Heather Y Wheeler. (2021). Gallipoli Campaign 1914 – 1916