Charles Edward Stuart, Young Pretender 1720 – 1788

Born – 31st December 1720
Died – 31st January 1788
FatherJames Francis Edward Stuart (1688 – 1766)
Mother – Maria Clementina Sobieska (1702 – 1735)
Spouse – m. 1772 sep 1780 – Louise of Stolberg-Gedern (1752 – 1824)
Children – Charlotte (illegitimate) (1753 – 1789)


1720 (31st December)
Charles Edward Stuart was born Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart to James Francis Edward and Maria Clementina Sobieska at the Palazzo Muti, Rome, Italy. His father was the deposed son of King James II of Britain and head of the Jacobite Movement to restore the monarchy of Britain to the heirs of James II. He was known as Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Young Pretender.
1725 (11th March)
Charles’s brother, Henry Benedict was born to James Francis Edward and Maria Clementina Sobieska.
1727 (11th June)
King George I of Great Britain died. He was succeeded by his son, King George II.
1734 (December)
Charles was named Prince Regent by his father. This gave him the authority to act in his father’s name.
1744 (early)
Charles’s father managed to regain French support for the Jacobite cause. Charles led a French invasion of Britain but it was abandoned due to poor weather.
1745 (23rd July)
Charles Edward Stuart, backed by the French, landed at Eriskay in the Outer Hebrides with a handful of men. A second ship carrying money and weapons had been damaged during a fight with a Royal navy ship and had returned to France. Charles Edward planned to gain Scottish support and then march south, Meanwhile the French would invade the south and when the two armies met they would remove George II from the throne.
1745 (19th August)
Charles Edward Stuart raised his standard at Glenfinnan and after attracting an army marched south.
1745 (4th September)
Charles took Perth in Scotland.
1745 (17th September)
The Scottish capital, Edinburgh, surrendered to Charles Edward Stuart.
1745 (21st September)
Battle of Prestonpans
This battle between the Jacobites led by Charles Edward Stuart and Royal forces led by Sir John Cope saw the Jacobites victorious.
1745 (31st October)
Although Charles’s advisers counselled him that he should wait in Edinburgh for reinforcements, Charles decided to march south.
1745 (early November)
The Jacobites took Carlisle in the north of England. Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army was now around 6,000.
1745 (4th December)
The Jacobite army reached Derby. Charles’s commander, Lord George Murray, decided not to continue to London due to lack of support among the English and headed back to Scotland.
1745 (8th December)
The Jacobites took Stirling in Scotland.
1746 (17th January)
Battle of Falkirk Muir
This battle between the Jacobites led by Charles Edward Stuart and George Murray and Royal forces led by Henry Hawley, saw the Jacobites victorious.
1746 (24th March)
A French ship carrying money and supplies for the Jacobite army was intercepted by the Royal Navy.
1746 (16th April)
Battle of Culloden
The Jacobites led by Charles Edward Stuart faced Royal forces led by King George’s brother, William, Duke of Cumberland. Charles refused to take the advice of his generals and chose to fight on flat, marshy ground. The Jacobites were completely defeated and Charles Edward fled the battlefield and sought refuge in the Highlands.
1746 (late Spring)
Charles Edward Stuart managed to evade the Royalists by hiding out with Highland clans. Although there was a reward of £30,000 for the capture of Charles Edward, none of the Highlanders gave him up.
1746 (27th June)
Charles Edward Stuart reached the Isle of Skye after escaping, disguised as a maid, with the help of Flora MacDonald.
1746 (1st August)
Act of Proscription
This act sought to prevent further Scottish uprisings. It banned the wearing of tartan or kilts and required all swords to be surrendered to the government.
1746 (1st August)
Heritable Jurisdictions (Scotland) Act
This act removed the power of clan chiefs over their clans.
1746 (September)
Charles Edward Stuart reached France.
1747 (during)
Charles Edward Stuart began a relationship with his cousin Marie Louise de la Tour d’Auvergne, wife of Jules Hercule Meriadec de Rohan.
1748 (January)
Marie Louise de la Tour d’Auvergne was forced to end her affair with Charles to prevent a scandal.
1748 (18th October)
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
This treaty agreed a peace between Britain, France and the Netherlands. With France at peace with Britain Louis XV no longer supported an invasion of Britain by Charles Edward.
1748 (December)
Charles Edward Stuart was exiled from France after continually pestering the French government to support a further invasion of Britain. He went to Ghent.
1750 (during)
Charles Edward Stuart converted to Anglicanism during a secret visit to London. He believed that conversion would give him a better chance of succeeding to the throne.
1750 (during)
Charles Edward Stuart sought the backing of Frederick II of Prussia. Frederick’s support was lukewarm and Charles’s supporters began to realise that there was little hope of gaining foreign support for a further invasion. Charles became disillusioned and angry. He began to drink heavily.
1752 (during)
Charles Edward Stuart began a relationship with Clementina Walkinshaw. They lived in Liege, Belgium.
1753 (29th October)
A daughter, Charlotte, was born illegitimately to Charles Edward Stuart and Clementina Walkinshaw at Liege.
1759 (during)
With France and Britain at war again, the French summoned Charles Edward to Paris to negotiate a joint invasion of Britain. However, the French found him overly ambitious and pompous and doubted his military ability.
1759 (18th August)
Battle of Lagos
The French were defeated by the Royal navy and were forced to postpone ideas of an invasion of Britain.
1759 (20th November)
Battle of Quiberon Bay
The French were again defeated by the Royal navy and were now forced to abandon ideas of an invasion of Britain.
1760 (during)
Charles’s mistress, Clementina Walkinshaw, with the aid of Charles’s father, James Francis Edward, left Charles because of his violence and drunkenness. She entered the convent of the Nuns of the Visitation in Paris.
1760 (25th October)
King George II died. He was succeeded by his grandson George III.
1766 (1st January)
James Francis Edward died in Rome. The Pope refused to acknowledge Charles Edward as sovereign of Great Britain. The lack of Papal support was a massive blow for the Young Pretender.
1772 (14th April)
Charles married Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern. They made their home in Rome.
1774 (during)
Charles and Louise of Stolberg-Gedern moved to Florence. He began to style himself the Count of Albany.
1780 (during)
Louise of Stolberg-Gedern left Charles claiming that she suffered physical abuse from Charles.
1783 (during)
Charles made his daughter, Charlotte, legitimate.
1788 (31st January)
Charles died of a stroke in Rome.


Published Jan 13, 2019 @ 0:15 pm – Updated – [last-modified]

Harvard Reference for this page::

Heather Y Wheeler. (2019 – 2020). Charles Edward Stuart, Young Pretender 1720 – 1788. Available: http://www.thetimelinegeek Last accessed [date]


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